Differences

Difference Between Lymphocytes and Phagocytes

What is the Difference Between Lymphocytes and Phagocytes? The immune system is a complex network of cells and organs that work together to protect the body against infections, bacteria, and viruses. The immune system is made up of a number of cells and organs, each with a different function. One of the main types of cells are lymphocytes.

This blog will help you find out what lymphocytes are, what their functions are, and the difference between lymphocytes and phagocytes.

Main Differences-Lymphocytes and Phagocytes

Try to Understand:

Lymphocytes and phagocytes are two types of cells that mediate the immune response in the body. The immune response is the way the body recognizes foreign substances and harmful substances. 

The three types of lymphocytes are T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. T cells specifically destroy pathogens and activate B cells to produce antigen-specific antibodies. Phagocytes can be either macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells or mast cells. 

They destroy pathogens by phagocytosis. The main difference between lymphocytes and phagocytic cells is that lymphocytes have a specific immune response to pathogens, whereas phagocytic cells have the same response to any pathogen . This means that lymphocytes are a tool of adaptive immunity, whereas phagocytic cells are a tool of innate immunity.

Main areas to cover

What are lymphocytes
      -definition, traits, functional
phagocytic cells
      -definition, traits, functional
lymphocytes and phagocytic similarities
      -outline of common functions
What are the differences between lymphocytes and phagocytic cells
      -comparison of major differences

Keywords: antigen-mediated immunity (AMI), B cells, cell-mediated immunity (CMI), dendritic cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, neutrophils, phagocytosis, T cells

Lymphocyte
Lymphocyte

What are lymphocytes?

Lymphocytes are small white blood cells that are involved in the body’s immunity. They protect the body from pathogens, foreign bodies, and tumor cells. Lymphocytes mainly circulate in the blood and lymphatic system. 

They are also found in the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, liver, lymph nodes, and tonsils. Lymphocytes cause a specific immune response against each type of pathogen in the body. This specific immune response is called adaptive immunity. 

The two types of adaptive immunity are humoral or antigenic immunity (AMI) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI). AMI is mediated by T cells that develop in the bone marrow and thymus. Various types of antigens are specifically recognized by various T cell receptors (TCRs) on the T cell membrane.

The three types of T cells are helper T (TH ) cells, cytotoxic T (T) C ) cells, and suppressor T cells. TH cells stimulate the production of antibodies by B cells. TC cells induce apoptosis of infected cells. Suppressor T cells block the immune response to autoantigens in the body. AMI is mediated by B cells that develop in the bone marrow. 

B cells provoke an immune response against circulating bacteria and viruses. Plasma B cells produce specific antibodies against various pathogens that invade the body. Some activated B cells that have previously encountered specific pathogens are stored as memory B cells in the spleen and thymus.

Lymphocyte
Lymphocyte

Figure 1: Lymphocytes

The third type of lymphocyte is a natural killer cell. Natural killer cells can identify tumor cells in the body. These cells can also induce apoptosis in infected cells. Lymphocytes are shown in Figure 1 . 

What is a phagocyte?

Phagocytes are cells that ingest and destroy foreign substances, pathogens, and cell debris. They are a major component of innate immunity in which a non-specific immune response occurs against pathogens. Ingestion of foreign particles by phagocytes is called phagocytosis. 

Macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells are a type of phagocytic cell. Monocytes are large white blood cells in the circulation that differentiate into macrophages. Macrophages have long-lived cells. They are slow to elicit, but their immune response to pathogens The immune response lasts longer. 

They swallow pathogens, dead cells, and cell debris, digest them in vacuoles, and release waste by exocytosis. This process is called phagocytosis. Dendritic cells also phagocytose pathogens, and they are also the major type of antigen-presenting cells in the immune system.

 Dendritic Cells
Dendritic Cells

Figure 2: Dendritic cells

Both macrophages and dendritic cells are considered professional phagocytes. Neutrophils are the most abundant granulocytes in the blood and they are the first immune cells to migrate to the site of infection. Migratory is called chemotaxis. Neutrophils cause acute inflammation. Mast cells secrete various chemical messengers that cause allergic reactions. Antigen processing and presentation by dendritic cells is shown in FIG. Figure 2 . 

Similarities between lymphocytes and phagocytic cells

  • Both lymphocytes and phagocytes are part of the immune system.
  • Most lymphocytes and phagocytes are found in the blood.
  • Both lymphocytes and phagocytes destroy foreign substances in the body.

Difference between lymphocytes and phagocytic cells

Definition

Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes are small white blood cells that play a major role in immunity.

Phagocytes: Phagocytes are cells that ingest and destroy foreign substances, pathogens, and cell debris.

type

Lymphocytes: T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells are three types of lymphocytes.

Phagocytes: Macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells are a type of phagocyte.

Type of immunity

Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes mediate the adaptive immune response.

Phagocytes: Phagocytes mediate the innate immune response.

Specificity

Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes provoke a specific immune response against specific pathogens.

Phagocytes: Phagocytes provoke a non-specific immune response against specific pathogens.

Conclusion

Lymphocytes and phagocytes are two types of cells in the immune system. T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells are three types of lymphocytes. Macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells are a type of phagocytic cell. 

Lymphocytes produce a specific immune response against each type of pathogen. In contrast, phagocytes destroy all types of pathogens by swallowing them. The main difference between lymphocytes and phagocytic cells is the type of immune response they trigger.

reference:

1. Bailey, Regina. “Lymphocytes: Defenders of the body.”

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