liquid, and solid are the three states in which matter can reside. These different states of matter have distinctive, characteristic only for them, properties.
Examples of substances that are in a gaseous state under certain conditions can be air, water vapor, pure oxygen, hydrogen and many other substances.
The molecules in the gases are far apart, the distances between the molecules are about ten times greater than the molecules themselves. Therefore, molecules do not interact with each other, intermolecular bonds are not established. Molecules randomly move in all directions.
As a result, gas
- has no form,
- takes up all the volume provided to him,
- Easily compresses and expands.
If you fill a rubber ball with air, the air will evenly fill its entire volume, it will not settle at the bottom or rise to the top of it. It will spread throughout the volume. If the same volume of air is filled with a ball that is larger than the first, then the air in it will also fill the entire volume, but will be less dense. Therefore, it will be easier for us to squeeze the second ball.
Why doesn’t the Earth’s air envelope – the atmosphere – “fly away” into space if the gas tries to occupy the entire volume? After all, there are no barriers between the atmosphere and space. The fact is that the Earth attracts bodies to itself, including the atmosphere. If the pull were weak, the gas would scatter across space. This is the case, for example, on the moon. It has no atmosphere.
Molecules of a liquid (for example, water), unlike gas molecules, are close to each other (one can say, closely) and interact with each other. However, the molecules of the liquid, as well as those of the gas, can move freely.
This causes the following properties of the liquid:
- retains its volume, and does not occupy the entire volume of the vessel,
- takes the form of a vessel in which it is located,
- has fluidity,
- very poorly compressed.
Unlike liquids, in solids, molecules are most often arranged in an orderly fashion. They cannot randomly change their position. Therefore, solids, unlike liquids, do not have fluidity, but retain their shape.
However, one caveat should be made. This is true of solids whose molecular structure is a crystal lattice. Amorphous bodies have fluidity, but much less than that of liquids.
Molecules or atoms of crystalline bodies are arranged in an orderly manner relative to each other. There is a certain “rule” by which each molecule (or atom) combines with other molecules of the crystal. So molecules can be located in the vertices of cubes or hexagons. In amorphous bodies, molecules are randomly arranged.
Transition of States of Matter
As already explained, the states of matter can change with each other under certain conditions. However, before understanding these terms, some terms need to be explained and defined.
- Melting point: the specific temperature at which matter transforms itself from solid to liquid.
- Boiling point: the specific temperature at which the pressure of vapour of liquid equals the atmospheric pressure. Water starts boiling at 100 degree Celsius.
- Freezing point: the specific temperature at which matter transforms itself from fluid to solid.
- Evaporation: the specific temperature at which matter transforms itself from liquid to gas.
- Condensation: the specific temperature at which matter transforms from gas to liquid.
Measurable properties of gas
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- It is denoted in kg or grams.
- The volume is denoted in liters, milliliters, centimeter cube, metre cube or decimeter cube.
- Pressure is measured with the help of a manometer or barometer.
- Temperature can be measured on Celsius or kelvin. The equation for conversion is T(K) = T(°C) + 273.15
What is an isobar?
It is a graph that measures volume on one axis and pressure on the other. For this, it is to be noted that the pressure is kept constant.
What is an isochore?
It is a graph of pressure on one axis and temperature on the other. For this, it is to be noted that the volume needs to be constant.
Some equation for gas
- V is directly proportional to 1/p where T and n are constant (Boyle’s law)
- V is directly proportional to T where p and n are constant (Charles’ Law)
- V is directly proportional to n where p and T are constant (Avogadro’s law)
- V is directly proportional to nT/p
= pV is directly proportional to nT
or pV = nRT
In all these equations, p= pressure, T= Temperature, N is the number of molecules and V is the volume.
Dalton’s Law of partial pressure
He said that when the temperature is kept constant, the total exerted pressure by a mixture of multiple non reacting gases can be taken as the summation of the partial pressures of the various gases present in the specific mixture.
P = p1 + p2 + p3 . . .
Graham’s law of diffusion
The rate of diffusion of various gases is inversely proportional to their density’s square roots.
r1 / r2 = √d2 / √d1
Kinetic theory of gases and its assumptions
- Gas contains molecules
- Volume occupied by these molecules is negligible
- There are continuous rapid motion of these molecules and they collide with each other.
- Molecules are perfectly elastic and there is absolutely no loss of kinetic energy
- 0 attractive force
- The pressure is due to collision of gas molecules with the wall of the container
- Molecules have different velocities and energies.
KE = 3/2RT
Average kinetic energy per molecule = 3/2kT
Velocities of gas molecules
- Most probable: a = √(2RT/M)
- Average velocity: v = √(8RT/nM)
- Root mean square velocity
Deviation from Ideal behavior
Compressibility factor (z) = pV / nRT
Van Der Waal’s equation and its limitations
where a and b are constants that have positive values and are the individual gas’s characteristics.
The limitation is the specific range of both pressure and temperature and hence tends to deviate at extremely high pressure and low temperature.
Liquid state and its properties
Vapour pressure is the pressure exerted by vapour over the liquid surface when these are in harmony with liquid at a given temperature. It depends on the nature of liquid, temperature, boiling point, surface tension and viscosity.
Thus the above is a brief guide for the different states of matter, their properties, and laws, equations and theories pertinent to them. Keep following us here to get more information on similar topics.
There are three common states of matter:
- Solids – relatively rigid, definite volume and shape. In a solid, the atoms and molecules are attached to each other.
- Liquids – definite volume but able to change shape by flowing. In a liquid, the atoms and molecules are loosely bonded.
- Gases – no definite volume or shape.
What are 7 states of matter?
The seven states of matter that I am investigating are Solids, Liquids, Gases, Ionized Plasma, Quark-Gluon Plasma, Bose-Einstein Condensate and Fermionic Condensate. Solid Definition – Chemistry Glossary Definition of Solid. 2013.
What is the 5 states of matter?
There are four natural states of matter: Solids, liquids, gases and plasma. The fifth state is the man-made Bose-Einstein condensates.
What are the 18 states of matter?
- Solid: A solid holds a definite shape and volume without a container. The particles are held very close to each other.
- Liquid: A mostly non-compressible fluid. Able to conform to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
- Gas: A compressible fluid.
What are the 11 states of matter?
States of Matter Class 11: Overview
|States of matter||Volume||Particle position|
|Solid||Fixed||Close together and fixed|
|Liquid||Fixed||Particles close but move freely|
|Gas||Variable||Particles not close or fixed|
|Plasma||Variable||Neutral atoms, and large number of ions and electrons that move freely.|
Are there 22 states of matter?
So how many states of matter are there, really? The answer is that there are four fundamental states of matter – solid, liquid, gas and plasma. These are the ones that occur naturally in the Universe.