Differences

The difference between lentiviruses and retroviruses

The difference between lentiviruses and retroviruses is that lentiviruses are known as a slow virus, whilst retroviruses are known as a fast virus.

A retrovirus is one that, when infected into the host cell, integrates its RNA into the DNA of the host cell. A lentivirus, on the other hand, is one that inserts its DNA into the host cell.

Retroviruses are very common in primates and are responsible for a number of diseases, including AIDS in humans. Conversely, lentiviruses only infect humans and primates.

The main difference – lentivirus and retrovirus

Try to Understand:

Lentiviruses and retroviruses are two types of viruses that infect living cells due to the completion of their life cycle. Lentiviruses are a subtype of retroviruses. The main difference between lentiviruses and retroviruses is that lentiviruses can infect both actively dividing and non-dividing cells, while retroviruses can only infect mitotic active cell types. 。

Thus, lentiviruses can infect a wider range of cellular stages than retroviruses. Both lentiviruses and retroviruses can be used as a medium to transport foreign DNA molecules to another cell. The mechanism of DNA transfer mediated by viruses is known as transduction. Both lentiviruses and retroviruses are used to modify defective genes involved in the development of disease.

Target Fields

1. What is a lentivirus – definitions, properties, and types 2.What is
a retrovirus?
– Definitions, properties, and types 3.Similarities between lentiviruses and

retroviruses
– Overview of common features 4.What is
the difference between a lentivirus and a retrovirus – a comparison of
the main differences

Keywords: HIV, lentivirus, recombinant DNA technology, retrovirus

What is a lentivirus?

What is a lentivirus?

Lentivirus is a type of retrovirus that has a long incubation period and causes chronic, progressive, and typically fatal illness in animals. Lentiviruses can be classified into five serotypes based on the type of host of the infected vertebrate. Cows, horses, cats, sheep / goats, and primates. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types and types 2, monkeys (SIV), and cats (FLV) are examples of lentiviruses. Lentivirus is used to introduce large DNA segments into cell lines (dividing), primary cells (dividing and non-dividing), neurons, stem cells, and hematopoietic cells. Most lentiviral vectors are based on HIV. The structure of HIV is shown in Figure 1.

The size of the HIV genome is 9.7 kb. The three major structural genes present in the genome are the gag (group-specific antigen) pole (polymerase) and the env (envelope). Another regulatory gene is idiot (HIV transactivate) rotation (virion protein expression regulator). In addition, there are four accessory genes in the HIV genome. vif (viral infectivity) vpr (viral protein R), VPU (viral protein U), and Nef (negative factor) Lentivirus replication, integration, and packaging are mediated by cis-acting elements of the lentiviral genome. Virus.

What is a retrovirus?

Figure 2: HIV Infection Mechanism

Retroviruses are any type of RNA virus that inserts a DNA copy into the host genome for replication. Retroviruses are characterized by their ability to reverse transcrib their RNA genomes into cDNA copies that can be integrated into the host genome. They consist of two copies of the positive sense ssRNA molecule in the genome. Retroviruses can be divided into three subfamilies based on different types of accessory and regulatory genes present in the genome. They are oncovirus, lentivirus, and spumavirus. Oncoviruses fall into three categories based on morphology. Different subfamilies of retroviruses with B-type, C-type, and D-type examples are described in. table 1.

Retrovirus subfamily and examples

Retrovirus subfamilyexample
Oncovirus type BMouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)
Oncovirus type CHuman T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), avian sarcoma and sarcoma virus (ALSV), and salmon lymphoma virus
Oncovirus type DMason Pfizer Monkey Virus (MPMV)
LentivirusHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV), sheep medivina virus (MVV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)
SpumavirusMonkey foam virus (SFV)

Retroviruses consist of reverse transcriptase for the reverse transcription of the RNA genome. Structural and enzymatic proteins such as capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC), integrase (IN), and protease (PR) are located inside the retroviral compartment.

Figure 2: HIV infection mechanism

The inner core of the retrovirus is surrounded by an outer protein layer consisting of matrix (MA) proteins. The retrovirus envelope is derived from the host cell membrane. Retroviruses infect dividing cell lines and primary cells, stem cells, and hematopoietic cells.

Similarities between lentivirus and retrovirus

  • Lentivirus and retrovirus are two types of viruses that infect living cells.
  • Both lentivirus and retrovirus capsids are icosahedron-shaped, both enveloped viruses.
  • Both lentivirus and retrovirus consist of two copies of the positive sense ssRNA genome.
  • Both lentivirus and retrovirus consist of reverse transcriptase (RT).
  • Both lentiviruses and retroviruses can reverse transcrib their RNA genomes into cDNA copies.
  • Both lentivirus and retrovirus genomes encode polymerases.
  • Both lentivirus and retrovirus can be used as a medium to transport foreign DNA molecules to another cell.
  • Both lentivirus and retrovirus have been used in recombinant DNA technology to introduce relatively large foreign DNA segments into animal cells.
  • Both lentivirus and retrovirus are used in gene therapy to correct defective genes involved in the development of the disease.
  • Both lentivirus and retrovirus use different isoforms. Genes for gag , pole , and env packaging.
  • Both lentivirus and retrovirus infect dividing cells, stem cells, and hematopoietic cells.
  • Both lentiviruses and retroviruses have a wide host range.
  • The insertion size for both lentivirus and retrovirus is approximately 8.0 kb.
  • Both lentivirus and retrovirus DNA are integrated into the genome.
  • You can integrate up to 10 copies of both lentivirus and retrovirus.
  • Neither lentivirus nor retrovirus shows very high levels of protein expression.
  • The recommended biosafety level for both lentivirus and retrovirus is BSL-2.

Difference between lentivirus and retrovirus

Definition

Lentivirus: A type of retrovirus that has a long incubation period and causes chronic, progressive, and typically fatal illness in animals.

Retrovirus: A retrovirus is any type of RNA virus that inserts a DNA copy into the host genome for replication.

Types of infected cells

Lentivirus: Lentivirus infects both actively dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retrovirus: Retroviruses can only infect mitotic active cell types.

type

Lentivirus: Lentivirus is a type of retrovirus.

Retrovirus: The three types of retroviruses are oncoviruses, lentiviruses, and spumaviruses.

range

Lentivirus: Lentivirus can infect a wide range of cellular stages.

Retrovirus: Retroviruses can infect a narrow range of cell stages.

Genome size

Lentivirus: The wild-type lentivirus genome is 9.7 kb in size.

Retrovirus: The size of the wild-type retrovirus genome is 8.3 kb.

Accessory gene

Lentivirus: Lentivirus consists of accessory genes in their genome.

Retroviruses: Some retroviruses, such as oncoviruses, lack the accessory gene.

Conclusion

Lentivirus and retrovirus are two types of viruses that infect living cells. Lentivirus is a type of retrovirus. Both lentivirus and retrovirus have been used in recombinant DNA technology to introduce relatively large foreign DNA segments into animal cells. Lentivirus can infect both dividing and non-dividing cells, while retroviruses can only infect dividing cells. This is the main difference between lentivirus and retrovirus.

reference:

1. O’Keefe, Eric P. “Nucleic Acid Delivery: Lentiviral and Retroviral Vectors” Materials and Methods June 15, 2015,

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